Friday, January 13, 2017

Dyson Sphere Around KIC 8462852 Debunked

The USS Enterprise discovers a Dyson sphere in an episode of Star Trek - Next Generation

Two years ago astronomers detected a strange star called KIC 8462852. This star behaves in a very unusual way. It shows unusual fluctuations in brightness and becomes significantly dimmer in an astronomically very short time (14% in 100 years).
The first explanation that our "scientists" came up with was the hypothesis that they might have discovered a so called Dyson Sphere, an artificial megastructure around a star that collects all energy that it emits. Such a concept was first suggested in 1960 by the British mathematician Freeman John Dyson and has since then been subject of several science fiction novels.
What else would have come to mind as explanation? A Dyson spheres even appeared in an episode of Star Trek, and if this does not count as a proof of its existence...

Unfortunately for our science fiction fans who these days prefer to call themselves "scientists" another real scientist called Brian Metzger from the Columbia University came up with a much more boring explanation. A star getting dimmer could simply be explained by a planet falling into the central sun of its solar system. Therefore we have no explanatory need for any alien megastructures.

On the positive side reason has prevailed and put a weird hypothesis to rest by a quite simple explanation. On the negative side this shows us what kind of mindset is common among today's scientists. Instead of giving simple and plausible explanations for observations, they use odd observations to support weird and far-fetched theories from a SciFi universe.
And this is not the first example of this kind. We may perhaps remember the case of oscillations ins an oversized interferometer being explained with the gravitational waves of two "black holes" merging with each other millions of light years away with no other observation to support this awkward hypothesis. I reported about it in an earlier post of this blog. To explain the observation with a more likely, but admittedly more boring tectonic event did not cross their mind.

This is the sad state of today's post-modern science. It is closer to science fiction than to true science or engineering.

Of course the existence of a Dyson sphere around KIC 8462852 has not been disproved with certainty. But if we have the choice between a far-fetched hypothesis from a SciFi novel or the trivial event of a planet falling into a star, which of the two explanations should we choose as rational beings?
A scientific mind also has to take probability into account. And while a Dyson sphere has a probability far closer to 0 than to 1%, the overwhelming probability points to the simpler explanation of a planet being swallowed by a star.

Monday, December 5, 2016

Iter Logicae - Latin Edition of the Path of Logic

Iter Logicae

The "Path of Logic" is now also available in Latin, the language of logic.

It is a revised, shortened and improved edition of the manual for logic and reason in classical Latin. It includes new graphics and a shorter, restructured and more compact text. 
The booklet is available in MOBI and EPUB format for e-readers. It can be downloaded from this link or from the download section in the right column of this blog. 


    Axiomata Logicae Classicae
    Logica Syllogistica
    Logica Propositionalis
    Fallaciae Deductivae
    Fallaciae Inductivae
  Methodi Disceptationum
  Logica Pragmatica
    Principia Linguae Rationalis
    Voluntariae Fallaciae Rhetoricae
    Purgatio Affectionum
    Abstinentia ab Iudiciis Inutilibus
    Abstinentia a Paenitentia
    Superatio Anxiae
    Dubitatio Auctoritatis
    Superatio Doloris
    Vitia contra Logicam

Monday, November 14, 2016

New Theory of Gravity Might Explain Dark Matter
A new theory of gravity might explain the curious motions of stars in galaxies. Emergent gravity, as the new theory is called, predicts the exact same deviation of motions that is usually explained by invoking dark matter. Prof. Erik Verlinde, renowned expert in string theory at the University of Amsterdam and the Delta Institute for Theoretical Physics, published a new research paper today in which he expands his groundbreaking views on the nature of gravity. [...]
According to Erik Verlinde, there is no need to add a mysterious dark matter particle to the theory. In a new paper, which appeared today on the ArXiv preprint server, Verlinde shows how his theory of gravity accurately predicts the velocities by which the stars rotate around the center of the Milky Way, as well as the motion of stars inside other galaxies.
"We have evidence that this new view of gravity actually agrees with the observations, " says Verlinde. "At large scales, it seems, gravity just doesn't behave the way Einstein's theory predicts."

Read more at:
According to Erik Verlinde, there is no need to add a mysterious dark matter particle to the theory. In a new paper, which appeared today on the ArXiv preprint server, Verlinde shows how his theory of gravity accurately predicts the velocities by which the stars rotate around the center of the Milky Way, as well as the motion of stars inside other galaxies.
"We have evidence that this new view of gravity actually agrees with the observations, " says Verlinde. "At large scales, it seems, gravity just doesn't behave the way Einstein's theory predicts."
Finally modern physics is moving closer to giving up speculative absurdities, dark matter being the first one. Many years ago I mentioned dark matter as one example where science had lost its way and had become science fiction. I also suggested that we have to rethink our theory of gravity, if it does not fit observation.
Hopefully this new theory allows us to get rid of other "dark things" like Black Holes and singularities, which all depend on our assumptions about how gravity works. If the above theory can be confirmed it even puts the Big Bang theory into question, at least in the way as we understand it today, because it also depends heavily on gravity.
It might be a big chance to fix the contradictions that we have currently in our physical theories. And maybe theoretical physicists will learn something from it. It is wrong to become too speculative, if you have not established the basics properly.
If it is confirmed that our current theory of gravity is simply wrong, then we can throw several decades of scientific research in physics out of the window. This is more or less also the time that there was no major breakthrough in physics. It appears we were on the wrong track - and we should have noticed it long ago. If I was able to notice it with my limited understanding of physics, why did the experts in theoretical physics not notice it? Apparently there is something wrong in how our international scientific community works. Physicists have become too comfortable in their office chairs, unwilling to think critical. They simply followed the path that others had gone before them: black holes, dark matter, big bang, inflation theory,  etc. It is about time that physics gets back down to earth. Then we might also see some tangible results coming from scientific research and not just useless and unverifiable speculations about the first milliseconds after a hypothetical Big Bang.

However it gives hope to see that science is indeed able to rethink and correct its theories and to go alternative ways, even if it takes several decades. When religion gets involved in explaining the universe, even after millennia they are unable to admit any mistakes. Therefore we should never let science become a new religion.

For now it seems that science is back on the right track again.

Saturday, October 22, 2016

New Books Available for Download

The following books are now available for download. All files are free of charge from this blog (download section in the right column) or you can purchase them from

The Path of Logic

The manual for logic and reason has been revised and corrected. It is available as PDF-file or as MOBI and EPUB-file for e-readers. You can download it from this link or from the download section in the right column of this blog. The download is free at this blog, but you can also buy it for US$ 1.15 at
This book will help you to approach life in a rational way.

Symbolic Logic

This short manual develops a symbolic language that is able to translate any sentence in natural language into a formula, to which the laws of logical inference can be applied. This symbolic language allows easy translations between different languages as well as testing any argument for its logical validity. If correctly applied, any disagreement among logically thinking people can be eliminated and a consensus should always be possible.
The book is available as MOBI or EPUB-file for e-readers and free of charge. It can be downloaded at this link or from the download section in the right column of this blog.

Chronology of the Empire


This book introduces a new view of human history following the translatio imperii interpretation. This means the history of human civilization is interpreted as a succession of several dynasties each building on the achievements of the previous one. The chronology starts with the first humans and ends with the geopolitical situation of the present. It allows you to see history from a different point of view so you can see the big picture or the "red thread" that connects it all. You will suddenly understand why things are as they are and why they could not have been any different. You will understand Napoleon's actual plan and why the last two world wars happened.
The book is available as MOBI or EPUB-file for e-readers and can be downloaded free at this link or from the download section in the right column. You can also buy it at for US$ 3.47.

Monday, October 17, 2016

German Nationality - The Great European Lie

European Nationalism is an idea born in the 19th century after the devastating Napoleonic Wars that caused the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium). And there is particularly one nationalism that had disastrous consequences for Europe up to the present day - the German, or better called the Prussian nationalism.

Today's Europeans are told that the population of central Europe forms a distinct nationality, the "Germans" or die Deutschen, as they call themselves. However this so called Germany (named after the former Roman provinces of Germania Maior and Germania Inferior) are nothing but a hegemony of the Prussians who absorbed the northern provinces of what was left of the former Holy Roman Empire after they had defeated the Napoleonic dynasty that held the imperial throne in 1870. The Prussian king William I then declared himself Emperor and created the nation, which is today known as "Germany". But what kind of nation has only existed for 130 years, came out of nothing and currently dissolves into nothing? How can such an artificial entity be called a "nation"?
In order to give this new nation more legitimacy the Prussians and later the nationalist Hitler regime rewrote history and redefined the Holy Roman Empire (HRE) as some kind of predecessor of "Germany", so they could claim a virtual history of more than 1000 years. (1st Reich - The HRE, 2nd Reich - Imperial  Prussian rule, 3rd Reich - National Socialist regime). Hereby they ignored the fact that the Habsburg territory, the core of the former HRE did not even become part of their newly created "German nation". On the other hand it was quite convenient that at the same time Italian nationalists invaded Rome, overthrew the papal rule and created a likewise artificial nation of "Italy".

The consequences of this Prussian nationalism have been disastrous for Europe. It resulted in two world wars, the destruction of the cultural unity of Europe and currently in a massive invasion of Saracen hordes from the Middle East into the center of the continent.
The first action of the Prussian king as soon as he had declared himself Emperor, which was itself legally impossible since he was a Protestant, was turning against the Pope in Rome. Without imperial protection the capital of the former Empire was overrun by Italian nationalists setting up a kingdom in its place.
Next the Prussian dynasty (Hohenzollern) allied themselves with the archenemy of Europe, the Ottoman Turks during WWI. They helped to overthrow the Eastern Emperor, the Tsar, and hereby destabilized the entire East. And even when they were finally defeated by the Western Entente, Adolf Hitler, ruling from the Prussian capital Berlin, did not take long to start another unsuccessful world war in 1939.
Even after their second defeat the worst was still to come. The artificial nation state of "Germany" brought millions of Turkish guest workers into Europe, their former allies in the Great War and for more than 500 years the mortal enemies of European civilization, the barbarians that destroyed the Eastern Roman Empire and until today hold the former Roman capital Constantinople under illegal occupation.
Then, last year in 2015, the Prussians initiated another foreign invasion from the Arab countries. Millions of so called "refugees" (military aged, able bodied, single young men) from Syria, Afghanistan and North Africa have since then flooded European soil, invited by the government in Berlin and causing havoc all over Europe.

This is a result of a false nationalism by a nation, which is none. How can there be any national or European identity in "Germany", when it is based on a lie? The Sacrum Romanum Imperium was not not a first German Empire. Otherwise it would have been called Sacrum Germanicum Imperium. The Holy Roman Empire was the Western Roman Empire. This is why it was called Roman in the first place, just like a can of beans is labelled as "beans", because it contains beans. If it contained pineapple, it would probably be labelled as "pineapple".
The HRE was ruled by the shared power of the pope in Rome and the Emperor, which had no official seat, since Emperors were generally on campaign to protect the borders since the earliest centuries of the Roman Empire. The last Holy Roman Emperor of the Habsburg dynasty never resided in the territory, which is today Germany, but in Vienna, which belongs to Austria. Just a few years before the foundation of "Germany" the Prussians had been at war with the Habsburg dynasty who were the last Emperors of the HRE. So there is absolutely no connection at all between the former HRE and the Prussian hegemony called "Germany" (Deutschland). The Rhine and the Danube have always been Roman since the time of Caesar. Their population is unrelated to the Prussians who came from the Baltic area to central Europe. This can still be seen in the fact that the population of the Rhine and the Danube are mostly Catholic, different from the  Prussians who are Protestants. They do therefore not share a nationality with them.

The term "Germans"in an ethnic meaning would furthermore include the Franks (today's French) and the Anglo-Saxons (today's British), but it does not not include Prussians (today's North East Germany) who are no Germanic people. The names of today's countries Germany, Britain, Belgium, Spain etc refer to the names of the former Roman provinces and have nothing at all to do with any particular ethnicity. 

Since the German nationality is based on a lie to begin with, it is not surprising that these so called "Germans" had no problems to abolish their nationality in 1999, when it was decided that anybody regardless of ethnicity who was born in the territory of Germany would become a "German". Since German nationality never really existed except in rewritten Prussian history books, it is only logical that it has now become a multi-ethnic term. Anybody can be a "German": a Turk, an Arab, an Eritrean and sometimes even a European.
The people who have opposed the Western European civilization since their earliest time, the Prussians, are now committed to give the final death blow to Europe. By purposely channeling millions of Middle Eastern and North African peoples into Europe they have created a state of anarchy in European streets with terrorism, state of emergency, systematic Islamization, public mass rapes of European women, violent crime and selective application of the law.

If Europe wants to survive, it has first to overcome this unhistorical nationalism that still rules the thinking of its people. "Germany" is no nation, it has never been one. It would be wise to restore the traditional Sacrum Romanum Imperium, the Western Roman Empire (not necessarily a "holy" one) in order to restore European unity, something that artificial nation states will never be able to achieve.
For this purpose it is necessary to know history, to know that there was no such thing as "Germany" or "Italy" before the latter part of the 19th century. Before this time there was only one Empire, ruled by a Pope and an Emperor, and all the princes and nobles of Europe had somehow family relations with each other. There was a deep rooted sentiment of unity that allowed for minor conflicts among the nobility and their armies but would never have allowed world wars and genocides of Europeans by other Europeans. And it would not have allowed a mass invasion of hostile barbarian hordes. 

Nationalism has destroyed the idea of a Western European civilization, and it will continue to do so. There are no European nations, there is only Europe.
And while an "Italian" is no foreigner in "Germany", since he is still on his European soil, a Saracen (Turk, Arab or other Mohammedan) will always remain a foreigner in Europe, no matter how many papers he has to prove the opposite.
A Saracen may become a German or an Italian, which are meaningless words, but he will never be a European. Only a European is a European.

Sunday, August 7, 2016


There is an irrational belief circulating, especially among uneducated people, that the world is controlled by an evil conspiracy of so called "Illuminati". They are supposed to worship the devil and to be responsible for all the evil in the world. Politicians, businessmen as well as celebrities from the entertainment industry are suspected to be their members. Freemasons or think tanks like the Club of Rome, the Bilderberg Group and the Trilateral Commission are believed to be their visible representations. This conspiracy theories took off in the Internet but also spread through questionable documentaries distributed as DVDs and TV productions.
We should not discard a theory without proper investigation. Therefore I did some investigation and the shocking truth is:

The Illuminati Exist!!!

Yes, it is all true! They exist, they rule the world, many of our elites belong to them and they oppose the Christian Church.
However this is no reason to despair. The true nature of the Illuminati is rather trivial and is nothing to worry about.

What does Illuminati actually mean?

The word "Illuminati" is Latin (plural of illuminatus) and means "The Enlightened Ones" in English. It refers to those people who belong to the philosophical movement of the Enlightenment, which is called "Illuminatio" in Latin. The Enlightenment marked the 18th and to some part already the 17th century and was also called "The Age of Reason". Since the prevalent language among scholars in this time was still Latin, it was often referred to as the already mentioned Illuminatio.

Now, what was the Enlightenment?
It is quite sad that I have to explain this today. I assume that most who read this are familiar with the word, but unfortunately the majority of people today are not. So I will give a short simplified summary.

The philosophy of the Enlightenment is what our modern civilization is based on. It meant that reason replaced faith as source of knowledge. It also meant that man, not god became the fundament of ethical questions, which is what we call humanism today. It included the establishment of natural law and Human Rights into our legal system and led to the rise of democracy, which eventually replaced the monarchy and the feudal system of the Middle Ages. As a result the nobility and the clerics lost their political influence. Furthermore it meant that science and the scientific method were taught in schools to children.

Since there was no Internet yet in the 18th century, the discussions took place in clubs, Masonic lodges and meetings of the educated bourgeoisie. This is apparently the reason why the Illuminati get usually associated with the Freemasons and think tanks.
The thinkers of the Enlightenment were usually Deists or Agnostics and opposed the privileges of the Church and their hierarchy. This is why they got later accused of opposing the christian god and helping the devil. For the simple christian mindset everybody who is not on their side is on the side of the devil.

The Enlightenment resulted in the American Revolution and the foundation of the United States of America as well as the French Revolution. So it does not come as surprise that conspiracy theorists discover "Illuminati symbols" all over the origins of American history.

The thinkers of the Enlightenment had great influence on the political leadership and were often members of the democratic ruling class. This is where the accusation of ruling the world finds its explanation. Yes, indeed, the world is controlled by republicans, by the principles of human rights and by supporters of the free market system. These are the people that carry the values of the Age of Enlightenment and who are in Latin referred to as illuminati.

Do we have to fear the Illuminati?

If you do not fear democracy, human rights, a free market system, science, education and a secular state, then you do not have to fear the Illuminati.  However if these are the things that you consider to be satanic, unholy, and simply wrong, and if you want the society of the Middle Ages back, where the bible defined what was true and false and the world was ruled by clerics and superstition, then you have good reasons to fear the Illuminati. These evil Illuminati can really spoil the fun that you could have burning heretics and rejecting reason and the scientific method. School would be so much easier, if we could get rid of science and all those boring books and limit education to the bible or the quran.

What does the fear of the Illuminati say about our society?

If people start having fear of the Enlightenment, i.e. the Illuminatio, it says a lot about where we are heading to. Apparently the "Age of Reason" is over and is getting demonized. Superstition and barbarism are the new standards. Those of us who received a classic education in proper schools are defamed as Illuminati giving this actually positive word a derogative meaning. Those who oppose the Age of Enlightenment, want new Dark Ages to come over the world. Instead of science and philosophy they are teaching worthless nonsense passing as "social sciences" in our schools and universities. We can see it in the spread of radical Islam what the future has in store for mankind - ignorance and superstition instead of reason and logic. Those who divulge conspiracy theories about Illuminati are the new barbarians who want to destroy modernity and its achievements.
We have the choice between Illuminatio and Tenebrae, Enlightenment or Darkness.

Friday, February 12, 2016

Gravitational Waves - "Cosmic breakthrough" or waste of money?

Today in the News:
Cosmic breakthrough: Physicists detect gravitational waves from violent black-hole merger

Scientists announced Thursday that they have succeeded in detecting gravitational waves from the violent merging of two black holes in deep space. The detection was hailed as a triumph for a controversial, exquisitely crafted, billion-dollar physics experiment and as confirmation of a key prediction of Albert Einstein's General Theory of Relativity.
Another example of modern pseudo-science and an explanation why science has reached a complete standstill during the last decades producing nothing that had made it into any practical application.
This giant and costly project, whose apparently only purpose of existence was providing a regular income for incompetent "scientists" who knew that they would be unable to produce any tangible results in their lifetime but nevertheless enjoyed the reputation that being a scientist brings with it, now claims that they have actually measured gravitational waves.

The measurement was done by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO). This is in short words an oversized interferometer (2.5 miles), which is able to detect tiny microscopical length distortions, which are supposed to be caused by gravitational waves. Such an experiment requires a really high degree of precision. 

And here we have the first flaw of the experiment. The facility was built on Earth. Apparently these scientists forgot that Earth is a tectonically active planet, apart from all the other environmental influences  that occur there. Therefore it is theoretically impossible to reach such a high degree of accuracy, which would be required for any useful result. Whatever length distortions they may have been measured, is more likely due to some seismic activity rather than two black holes over 5 billion light years away.
I do not even want to go into astrophysical details asking how these mysterious objects called "black holes" are supposed to merge, since we know from General Relativity that time itself slows down at the proximity of a black hole and reaches a standstill at the Schwarzschild radius, the horizon of the black hole.
But whatever event they claim to have taken place hen these super-massive objects merged, we should also have been able to measure more than just gravitational waves. Where was the corresponding gamma radiation in the sky? Not all the energy would go into gravitational waves, a lot must also have been emitted as electromagnetic waves. They could claim it was hidden by a nebula or some other object, but this is a too convenient excuse. Fact is that this LIGO experiment is no sufficient evidence and it is not even theoretically suited to provide such an evidence.

As the article admits, it was a controversial experiment. And there was a lot of pressure on these scientists to come up with some justification for the billion of dollars that they had received.
This project was a waste of money. It did not give us any further insights into the nature of gravity that Einstein had not given us already hundred years ago. Its results will not lead to any practical application and be of no consequence. Neither can they be verified independently by other observations. But this is exactly what today's scientists want: a well-paid job without the need to show anything, which can be verified or put to some use.
We do not need this kind of research. We need nuclear fusion, spacecrafts and MagLev trains. Astrophysics cannot be done from an armchair. Proper astrophysics has to e done in space. If we want to do research on black holes, we have to fly there and watch it from close up. Since we cannot do this, any such research is useless.
The philosopher Epicurus had already thousands of years ago established the proper methodology of science and inductive reasoning in general. There is no absolute truth knowable by the scientific method. Any model or theory that does not contradict any observation is equally valid. we have already a theory on gravity - Einstein's General Relativity. And this theory is valid until we make an observation that contradicts it. We do not need to waste billions of dollars for an experiment that claims to prove it, as long as we have no other observations, which are relevant to us and can support or falsify this theory.
Setting up an experiment that might support a theory or otherwise might be inconclusive is methodically incorrect. A theory is valid as long as it is not falsified. It will not become more valid by such an experiment that could support it but not falsify it.

No, the LIGO experiment has not proved Einstein right. Its results may be in accordance with Einstein's theory about gravitational waves, but they are no proof. A lot of money was wasted that could have been put to better use.

Friday, December 4, 2015

The End of the Nation State

History of the Nation State in Europe

The concept of the nation state was essentially introduced to Europe by the Romans. Although Alexander the Great had ruled the Empire before them, his reign was centered in Babylon in Asia and later under his Seleucid successors in Seleucia and Antioch, after the former capital had been devastated during the civil war (Wars of the Diadochi). The Hellenic Empire was not a European invention, but Alexander had simply taken over the throne of the Achaemenid dynasty.
When Rome finally defeated the Hellenic dynasty of the Seleucids, the center of gravity of the Empire shifted to the West. Rome became the capital of the first European Empire. The polis, the independent city state that had dominated the political order of the civilized part of Europe, was replaced by an Empire that claimed universal sovereignty.
The Roman Empire was however not a nation state as we understand it today. Not every inhabitant of the Empire was a Roman. The authorities distinguished between peregrini, essentially barbarians that lived within the borders of Rome’s influence, and  Romans with different degrees of citizenship. The Empire was not the political entity of one nation, but a multinational entity ruled by one nation, the Romans. What defined the Empire, was that it included everybody who was under the protection and control of the Roman military. Its borders were defined by the reach of the Roman legions. One was part of the Empire, if one fell under the reach of the Roman military.
Over time the Roman citizenship was extended over more and more barbarians that lived within the borders of the Empire. This occurred by freeing barbarian slaves whose children could acquire full citizenship with all political rights or by granting full citizenship to peregrini after 25 years of service in the Roman military, mostly the auxiliary cohorts. Therefore Roman citizenship or nationality lost more and more its ethnic meaning. Most Romans were soon not of ethnic Roman origin.
The final step was done by Emperor Caracalla who was at least partly of non-European ethnic origin by the Constitutio Antoniniana. This edict granted every free man living within the borders of the Empire full Roman citizenship. The distinction between Roman and peregrinus was abandoned. The Empire was not ruled by a nation anymore but had changed into a solely political entity unrelated to nationality or ethnicity.
So it was only a logical consequence that shortly after Rome lost its status as capital and the Empire its Roman character. Only the name remained as a meaningless designation.
Emperor Diocletian who had moved the capital away from Rome also initiated the split of the Empire into a Western and an Eastern half. This had far-reaching cultural consequences that remain until the present day. The East became  essentially Greek, the West remained Latin. Under Diocletian’s successors both parts of the Empire adopted an oriental superstition as their state religion losing much of the European character and culture.

Due to the cultural alienation in the Western, European part of the Empire the central government soon lost political control over its provinces. These provinces organized more and more into autonomous kingdoms of formerly barbarian nations. Finally during the 5th century the central government of the West was dissolved. De iure the autonomous kingdoms fell under the supreme authority of the Emperor in Constantinople, but he was unable to fully exercise his authority there.  The Western provinces had de facto become independent nations.
In the year 800 the Western part of the Empire finally got its own central government again under Emperor Charlemagne. However his Holy Roman Empire could only exercise direct control over some provinces. The other provinces remained de facto independent kingdoms. These kingdoms became the nation states that we recognize today, although they remained de iure provinces under the political authority of the Western Emperor and the religious authority of the Pontifex Maximus in Rome. However there were only few occasions, when this central government could exercise its formal authority, one of them being the crusades against the Arab barbarians.

The nation states during these Middle Ages were defined by the feudal system. Citizenship in these political entities was based on personal loyalty to the corresponding feudal Lord. This is why these states are known as states of personal loyalties (Personenverbandsstaat). The feudal system superceded ethnic or territorial borders.

This entire political system fell into disorder after the fall of Constantinople to the barbarians. The intellectual elite of the Empire fled from Constantinople to the West and triggered the Renaissance. It was an attempt to restore European culture and to free Western Europe from the grip of an oriental superstition that had been the state religion during the Middle Ages.
Indeed the Renaissance managed to break the religious authority of the Pontifex Maximus in Rome and the Western Emperor (of the Holy Roman Empire), but it also caused the Reformation. This religious conflict led to the devastating Thirty-Years-War and ended the political system of the Middle Ages with a de iure Emperor and de facto independent provinces organized into feudal states.
The resulting Peace of Westphalia finally established the modern concept of the nation state (Territorialstaat). Since then the nation state has been defined by its territorial borders and its citizens developed an own national identity with a national language, culture and sense of patriotism. This was often independent from the former ethnic origin. Celts, Franks, Roman and Normans considered themselves French, because they lived within the borders of France. Visigoths, Romans and Iberians became Spaniards, because they lived in Spain, Lombards, Normans and Romans became Italians because they lived in Italy. When the national borders shifted due to wars, the population was  often moved along with the territorial borders.
These new national identities even survived the Great War from 1914 to 1919, while in any other regard the political system of Europe was completely restructured, the Emperors of East and West overthrown and the republican system established throughout the Empire. The citizens maintained their national identities unaffected by their nation being a monarchy or a republic.
The Westphalian concept of the nation state therefore survived almost unchanged for over three centuries.

Westphalian Definition of a Nation State

The Westphalian nation state is a territorial state. It is defined by the borders of its territory rather than by its population. A citizen is expected to live in the territory of the nation state.
Apart from the territory the citizens of the nation state are usually united by their common language, their common ethnicity, their common values and culture and their solidarity community. The last one has in Europe developed into a sophisticated welfare system, where all citizens contribute to a common fund which pays for extraordinary expenses in case of unforeseeable misfortunes like accidents, sickness, unemployment or incapacity due to old age.

Nation states with a high degree of ethnic homogeneity usually have ius sanguinis (right of blood) as basis of their citizenship. This means citizenship is inherited by the parents. Citizen is who has parents of the corresponding nationality. An example of a nation with ius  sanguinis is former Germany.
Nation states, which are ethnically rather heterogenous or have a constant influx of immigrants have their citizenship usually based on ius solis (right of soil). This means citizenship is automatically acquired by being born in the national territory. An example of a nation with ius solis are the United States of America.

Exceptions to ius sanguinis and ius solis were usually possible under special circumstances, and a person could acquire another citizenship by the process of naturalization, when he had proved his loyalty to the nation. Usually continuous residency in a nation for a period of many years or sometimes military service for this nation was accepted as sufficient proof of loyalty, so that the new citizenship could be granted. There were different regulations regarding dual citizenship, with some nations permitting such a status and others not.

The nationalization of new citizens undermined the strict sense of ius sanguinis or ius solis. But even then the nation maintained a unity based on common values, language and solidarity system. The new citizen became part of the host culture, which he adopted as his own and contributed to the common fund of the welfare system. Ethnical differences were expected to disappear due to intermarriage with the host population.

This was the definition of the nation state that prevailed until the second half of the 20th century and which has finally ceased to exist with the refugee crisis of 2015.

The common definition of a nation state has so far been based on at least one of the following points:
  • Territorial borders
  • Ethnic community
  • Linguistic community
  • Community of common values
  • Community of solidarity

End of the European Nation State

Since the second half of the 20th century the European nation states have systematically been abolished by populist far-left governments. With the refugee crisis of 2015 most of the European nation states have ceased to exist. There is no logically consistent definition of a nation state anymore. Citizenship is instead determined arbitrarily on a case to case basis without a generally applicable rule. Neither residency nor culture, language, solidarity contributions or ethnicity can definltimately determine citizenship.
Most European nation states have lost their territorial integrity, since they have to share their territory with significant proportions of foreign nationals. As a result most Europeans cannot call any nation their own. Ius solis is effectively abolished, since citizenship is granted independent from the place of birth and not necessary anymore to live permanently in a certain country. Therefore the territorial definition of a nation state does not apply anymore.
The European nation states are not ethnically homogenous anymore. Many non-Europeans hold European passports, so that the possession of European citizenship allows no conclusion regarding the ethnicity of the person. This means ius sanguinis is effectively abolished too. Therefore the ethnic definition of a nation does not apply anymore either.
Many non-Europeans hold European passports while only having rudimentary knowledge of the language of their host country. In the cities of large urban areas Arabic and Turkish is more often heard in daily life than the native language. International corporations use English as primary internal language. So language does not reflect national borders anymore. The linguistic definition of a nation state had always had serious flaws, but meanwhile it has become meaningless.
A major part of the European population is Mohammedan, and “Mohammed” has become the most common name given to newborn babies in several European nations. Mohammedanism does not share any values with European traditions, and the ultimate loyalty of every Mohammedan is with Islam not with his nation state. Nevertheless Mohammedanism is not considered an obstacle for acquiring a European nationality effectively nullifying the cultural definition of the nation state.
Many people in Europe are supported by the welfare system of their nation state without ever having made a significant contribution to the common fund. It is therefore not a community of solidarity, but a class system with some people belonging to the recipient class and others belonging to the donor class. Entitlement to social welfare does not have an earlier contribution to the system as prerequisite. The vast majority of immigrants never contribute to the system but are supported by it right after being admitted to the European host country. The definition of a nation state as a community of solidarity is therefore not fulfilled, since there is no in-group that protects its interests as community against an out-group.

Post-Nation-State World

In Europe two different concepts preceded the concept of the nation that was established by the Roman Empire: the tribe among the barbarians and the city state (polis) in the more civilized part of Europe.
Neither of these two concepts will return after the idea of the nation state has been abandoned. Instead we see other concepts developing.


Western politicians currently try to sell the idea of a globalized world without national borders as the evolving political system of a post-nation-state world. This would de facto mean the abolishment of the autonomy of the provinces of the Empire, which would at the same time expand over the whole globe. However this vision is a far cry from reality. Only the elite benefits from globalization, while the normal people still experience the same restrictions of movement at the national borders. Visa regulations, import and export restrictions and residence permits continue to limit their possibilities to the borders of the former nation states, which have become nothing more but administrative units that they have been assigned to.  Free movement and economic opportunities across the borders are only available to the wealthy, while it becomes more and more restricted for the vast majority due to increasingly stringent visa, residence, banking and taxation laws.
So the dream of a globalized world instead of a world of nation states has become a failed concept, which is limited to the virtual world of the Internet.

Mohammedan Concept of Nation

An alternative concept of nation is meanwhile propagated and quite successfully established by Mohammedanism. It rejects the territorial state returns to the pre-Westphalian concept of the state of personal loyalties (Personenverbandsstaat). Citizenship is determined independent from the national territory where a person resides but by his personal loyalty, in this case to the Mohammedan umma, as they call their nation.
The Mohammedan concept in principle distinguishes between three classes of people, quite similar to the Roman Empire.
  1. The Muslim (civis) - a person that enjoys full citizenship in the umma.
  2. The Dhimmi (peregrinus) - a foreigner living within the zone of influence of the umma and is subject to its laws without political participation.
  3. The Kafir (barbarus) - a foreigner not part of the Mohammedan world.
This concept of nation and citizenship has turned out to be quite successful in the post-nation-state world. Mohammedans have their own laws (sharia), their own language (Arabic), their own conventions of civil registry (Arabic names, polygamy laws, burial procedures), their own customs and culture (dress code, beards, diet rules), their own calendar, their own consulates (mosques), their own public offices (imams, muezzins etc.) and their own central government (caliph), independent from the territorial borders, in which they reside.
This seems to be the future path of the definition of a state in the post-nation-state world.

A European Answer to the Fall of the Nation State

The original European answer to the fall of the nation state was the idea of globalization. As has been explained above this concept has not worked out successfully or the vast majority of the people. They are restricted to a political entity that has lost its original meaning and has become a mere administrative unit of an international community that is only real for a tiny upper class minority and in the virtual world of the Internet. This answer is therefore not a viable option.
The Mohammedan concept however has successfully established itself in the post-nation-state world. Europeans have to adapt to this new situation and need to develop a similar concept of nation based on the same principles. A system of territorial states and states of personal loyalties cannot parallely coexist. It is either the one or the other. The former is dying, the latter emerging. Europeans have to accept this fact. They have to correct their concept of nation following the Mohammedan example. Of course it must have a European, not an Arab design.

Future European nations need to be states of personal loyalties (Personenverbandsstaaten) and not that much territorial states (Territorialstaaten). They need to reflect ethnic and cultural reality and not just serve an administrative purpose.
Reality is that a German is a German, no matter if he lives in the administrative district called Federal Republic of Germany, Republic of France, United States of America or Republic of Argentina, while a Turk or Arab will never be a German, whether he holds a passport of the administrative district called Federal Republic of Germany or not.
The same is true for a Celt who will always be a Celt, no matter if he resides in Scotland, France, Australia or the Caribbean, while a French passport will not make a black African or an Arab a Celt.
Nation is based on ethnicity and culture. It cannot be arbitrarily acquired. Like with Mohammedanism ethnicity is not an absolute requirement. Even non-Arabs can join the umma. Therefore a European definition of nation does not need to be more stringent in this regard either. But nationality should require a complete immersion into the host culture. This would include a name change and the joining of the whole family, as well as the use of the new language in daily life. The nation is part of one’s identity. Changing the nation means getting a new identity. A change would therefore be a rare exception. Commonly the nation is inherited from the parents and never changed.

European Nations

The old nation states are dead. Terms like Italian, French or British have become meaningless. They only describe administrative assignations. A French can as well be a Celt or Frank as an Arab or Bantu. Even when French still were homogeneously European, they were already a mixed population consisting of Gauls (Celts), Normans (Vikings), Romans and Franks (Germans) often having retained particular phenotypical features and cultural habits of their original nation. Cultural borders often divided established nation states. Germany for example has maintained the division along the former border of the Roman Empire, one part being predominantly Catholic while the other being predominantly Protestant, one part having a wine culture while the other having a beer culture, one population being predominantly dark-haired the other rather fair-haired. So on a cultural basis South-West Germany was rather related to France than the rest of Germany. In Italy the former borders of the Lombard kingdom that ruled the North and the Roman part in the South have also remained visible in the population that appears quite distinct in the North and South of Italy.

The nationalities that emerged during the Middle Ages cannot serve as designations for European nations anymore for more than one reason.
First of all these names are already taken by the modern administrative units of Europe that do not describe nationality. It already creates confusion, when an Arab terrorist is called a “French citizen” in the news creating a distorted picture of the mentioned incident. The term “French” does not describe the nationality of a person anymore. It would therefore be misleading to call a European nation as “French” under the new definition.
Another reason for these modern names being unsuitable for a European nation is that that they have emerged in a time when the oriental cult of Christianity had already destroyed the original European culture. These names are therefore associated with oriental Christian rather than European culture.
It is therefore necessary to return to the names that were in use during pre-Christian antiquity.

According to these rules we can therefore identify the following culturally and ethnically distinct European nations today:
  • Celtic Nation
  • Germanic Nation
  • Roman/Latin Nation
  • Slavic Nation
  • Greek/Hellenic Nation
  • Finnic/Ugric Nation
The new national communities need to be based on these groups or even smaller subunits, each defined by its own distinct culture and religion. To which of these nation one belongs is not determined by the territorial state or administrative unit that he was born in. A European French is not automatically a Celt or Gaul. He could be a Frank (German) or Roman. He has to find out his nation according to his family history, his cultural affinity or his physical appearance.
If the European people want to survive the ongoing islamic invasion, the original European nations have to assess their identity. Otherwise Europe will within one or two generations become just another part of the Arab world; and what Europe once was will be forgotten as insignificant pre-islamic history, just as it happened with so many other civilizations before in other parts of the world.
Those Europeans who are not willing to rediscover their original nation are doomed to become either Dhimmi or Muslim in the new islamic European continent.

For the centuries to come the European nations have to accept that they cannot claim a particular territory for themselves. The situation today has in many ways become like the diaspora of the Jewish people during the past centuries - a people without a home, its remnants spread all over the world. Europeans therefore need to adopt the same survival strategies as the Jewish people did. Not territorial borders but only the cultural and religious community can hold them together. Loyalty to these nations must supercede any loyalty to the administrative district where they live. It is the only way how the European nations will be able to see the 22nd century. With effect of the year 2015 the age of the territorial states is over; the states of personal loyalties have returned.